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Ukraine Ex Post Evaluation Of Exceptional Access Under The 2010 Stand By Arrangement

Ukraine  Ex Post Evaluation of Exceptional Access Under the 2010 Stand by Arrangement PDF

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Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 149832942X
Size: 28.50 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 44
View: 2014


This paper discusses Ukraine’s Ex Post Evaluation of Exceptional Access Under the 2010 Stand-By Arrangement. For the most part, the 2010 program was appropriately designed given the ambitious agenda it had set out to accomplish. The macroeconomic strategy and program design correctly addressed the most important vulnerabilities—Ukraine’s large fiscal and quasi-fiscal deficits, its lack of resilience to external shocks, and lingering weaknesses in the financial sector. Although the program’s long duration was appropriate given its focus on medium-term issues, hindsight would suggest that a shorter program would have been preferable given the country’s past program performance.

How Emerging Europe Came Through The 2008 09 Crisis

How Emerging Europe Came Through the 2008 09 Crisis PDF

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Author: Mr. Bas B. Bakker
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1475581866
Size: 35.91 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 348
View: 2866


Emerging Europe was particularly hard hit by the global financial crisis, but a concerted effort by local policymakers and the international community staved off impending financial meltdown and laid the foundations for renewed convergence with western Europe. This book, written by staff of the IMF's European Department that worked on the region at the time, provides a unique account of events: the origins of the crisis and the precrisis policy setting; the crisis trigger and the scramble to avoid the worst; the stabilization and recovery; the remaining challenges; and the lessons for the future. Five regional chapters provide the analytics to put events into perspective. Dedicated chapters for all 19 countries of the region dig deeper into the idiosyncrasies of each economy and provide extensive economic data. A final chapter distills the lessons from the overall regional experience and the wide intraregional diversity. Taken together, they make this book an indispensible reference for economic scholars of the region and beyond.

Sri Lanka Ex Post Evaluation Of Exceptional Access Under The 2009 Stand By Arrangement Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka  Ex Post Evaluation of Exceptional Access Under the 2009 Stand By Arrangement Staff Report  Press Release  and Statement by the Executive Director for Sri Lanka PDF

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Author: International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498389430
Size: 34.27 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 48
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sri Lanka’s 2009 Stand-By Arrangement was initiated at the onset of the global financial crisis. It also coincided with the ending of the country’s decades-old civil conflict. This unusual combination of circumstances made the program subject to very high economic uncertainty. The immediate imperative was to avert a balance of payments crisis— allowing for an orderly exchange rate adjustment and a rebuilding of external reserves— so as to forestall a shock with socially disruptive consequences. Recognizing the role of fiscal imbalances in the crisis, the program called for a fiscal consolidation that could restore debt sustainability. The program also aimed to put in place a framework to resolve problem banks and safeguard financial stability. Viewed through the immediacy of averting an acute external shock, Sri Lanka’s program was successful. On economic grounds, Sri Lanka’s need was evident. The program provided a catalytic effect to confidence at a crucial time. The balance of payments pressures not only ebbed, they reversed decisively within a few months of the program’s inception in recognition a potential “peace dividend” that the country might reap, as well as the Fund’s reassuring presence. In conjunction with these factors, the global environment also improved. As a result, the economy experienced strong growth and lower inflation relative to the preprogram years. Exceptional access, as approved at the program’s inception, was appropriate, as was the subsequent re-phasing of purchases to reflect improved conditions. The program concluded in 2012 (following two extensions), marking the completion of Sri Lanka’s longest engagement with the Fund. Viewed through the broader prism of achieving longer-term objectives, however, the program’s success was partial. Although international reserves were restored to a more comfortable level, exchange rate adjustment has not fully restored external competitiveness, and external vulnerabilities remain high. Thanks to a commendable level of expenditure control by the authorities through most of the program, headline and primary fiscal deficits declined after a large initial slippage. However, the fiscal adjustment was unbalanced—relying completely on expenditure cuts—while revenues continued their long-term decline, straining the future ability to sustain much-needed (and growth inducing) capital expenditure. Also, underlying fiscal and external debt-related vulnerabilities have not been significantly reduced despite improvement in headline numbers. Indeed, by some measures, they may have risen. The program had limited success in reining in the losses of state-owned enterprises. There have been improvements in the financial sector—notably in the area of risk-based supervision—but progress still needs to be made in other areas. To a certain extent, shortcomings with respect to longer-term objectives may reflect the fact that structural impediments were significant—in areas ranging from state owned enterprise reform to revenue administration, as well as the management of domestic liquidity conditions. This made some of the goals too ambitious for the time-frame of the program, despite two extensions. Difficulties encountered during previous attempts that were aimed at tackling these problems may have served to temper such optimism. Yet, in some areas—exchange rate flexibility, and revenue enhancements—policy choices also had a role to play in shaping weaker than envisaged program outcomes. By way of lessons, therefore, this report calls for more careful calibration of program goals. Targets need to be tethered by credible well specified bottom-up measures with attention to their sequencing, matching the degree of commitment. There may also be a case for keeping a sharper distinction between various kinds of Fund facilities for differing circumstances.

Energy Policies Beyond Iea Countries

Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries PDF

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Author:
Publisher: OCDE
ISBN:
Size: 78.75 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 221
View: 4259


Ukraine's energy sector faces unprecedented challenges, from a heavy reliance on expensive fossil-fuel imports to inefficient infrastructure and markets. Yet there is also potential for Ukraine to experience an energy revolution, one that could boost employment, lift economic growth and enhance energy security. Modernisation of Ukraine's energy-supply sectors has only begun and will require investment on a huge scale, complemented by a fundamental reform of the business environment. A strong dependency on oil and gas imports and often-inefficient energy production, transportation and supply sectors means that reducing energy demand must be a greater priority. The potential for energy efficiency gains in the residential, district heating and industrial sectors is large. Endowed with large conventional energy reserves, alongside sizeable renewable potential, Ukraine can build the capacity to significantly increase its resource production. Releasing this potential will require deep regulatory reform and full implementation of international treaty provisions. Effective competition, alongside a progressive move towards market prices, will also help Ukraine attract investment to develop the sector. A draft energy strategy, which sets out a series of supply-side measures, was published in 2012. Broadening and implementing a comprehensive energy strategy, one that takes greater account of demand-side policies, could significantly improve progress in the medium term. This review analyses the large energy-policy challenges facing Ukraine and provides recommendations for further policy improvements.

Generale History Of Africa Vol I Methodology And African Prehistory

Generale History of Africa     Vol  I     Methodology and African Prehistory PDF

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Author: Joseph KI-Zerbo
Publisher: UNESCO
ISBN: 9789236017075
Size: 46.60 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category :
Languages : ar
Pages :
View: 1919


The earliest man and the prehistory of Africa according to geographical areas, with the Nile Valley singled out in particular. Chapters are devoted to prehistoric art, agricultural techniques and the development of metallurgy.

World Economic Outlook October 2016

World Economic Outlook  October 2016 PDF

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Author: International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1475551584
Size: 42.17 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 288
View: 3158


According to the October 2016 "World Economic Outlook," global growth is projected to slow to 3.1 percent in 2016 before recovering to 3.4 percent in 2017. The forecast, revised down by 0.1 percentage point for 2016 and 2017 relative to April’s report, reflects a more subdued outlook for advanced economies following the June U.K. vote in favor of leaving the European Union (Brexit) and weaker-than-expected growth in the United States. These developments have put further downward pressure on global interest rates, as monetary policy is now expected to remain accommodative for longer. Although the market reaction to the Brexit shock was reassuringly orderly, the ultimate impact remains very unclear, as the fate of institutional and trade arrangements between the United Kingdom and the European Union is uncertain. Financial market sentiment toward emerging market economies has improved with expectations of lower interest rates in advanced economies, reduced concern about China’s near-term prospects following policy support to growth, and some firming of commodity prices. But prospects differ sharply across countries and regions, with emerging Asia in general and India in particular showing robust growth and sub-Saharan Africa experiencing a sharp slowdown. In advanced economies, a subdued outlook subject to sizable uncertainty and downside risks may fuel further political discontent, with anti-integration policy platforms gaining more traction. Several emerging market and developing economies still face daunting policy challenges in adjusting to weaker commodity prices. These worrisome prospects make the need for a broad-based policy response to raise growth and manage vulnerabilities more urgent than ever.

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