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Eurotragedy

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Author: Ashoka Mody
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199351384
Size: 54.55 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 651
View: 5799


The promise of the European pursuit of ever closer union created tremendous optimism that conflict was the past and harmony would be the future. The enthusiasm for economic integration and monetary union, through the Euro, enhanced the confidence that differences among countries could beovercome.In this dynamic and incisive overview of the European project from its beginnings, Ashoka Mody convincingly demonstrates that the tensions and flaws of the European project were both baked-in and foreseen from the beginning. He focuses on personalities whose ambitious and relentless push forintegration led them to choose facts and analysis consistent with their visions and to dismiss warnings of turbulence. They thus laid the seeds for disappointment. Mody examines key moments when contradictions were papered-over, compromising the integrity of integration. He shows how political andeconomic leaders believed the stories they told themselves about the inevitability of a united Europe as a foundation of peace, prosperity, and democratic ideals, even in the face of warnings from the earliest stages that while the political pillars seemed strong, the economic foundations were weak.Mody compellingly shows how monetary union impaired European integration rather than enhanced it. European countries have always had vastly different economic conditions, and the common currency increased divergences rather than smoothing them, as many analysts warned at the time. The economic,financial, and political pathologies of the euro were there from the beginning, even if the global economic boom hid them. With political and economic elites benefitting, they could ignore the growing discontent of those who suffered and the antipathy to the European project in national heartlands.When crisis inevitably hit, leaders denied, delayed, and took half-measures that only further alienated people. If once the inability to deliver on the economic promise caused the political handicaps to worsen, now the political splintering is making it harder to mount an effective response.

France 2014 Article Iv Consultation Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For France

France  2014 Article IV Consultation Staff Report  Press Release  and Statement by the Executive Director for France PDF

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Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498337392
Size: 54.70 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 66
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This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that the economy of France fared better than most other large euro areas economies through the crisis, reflecting the resilience of private consumption, lack of financial fragmentation, and lower levels of household and corporate debt. Banks’ financial position has also been strengthened. But after two years of near stagnation, unemployment remains high. A loss of competitiveness has also weighed on growth. The outlook is for a gradual recovery, with GDP growth projected at 0.7 percent in 2014 and 1.4 percent in 2015, based on stronger external and domestic private demand, reflecting gains in real disposable income and improved profit margins.

Oecd Economic Surveys France 2015

OECD Economic Surveys  France 2015 PDF

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Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
ISBN: 9264206485
Size: 21.98 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 148
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This OECD Economic Survey of France examines recent economic developments, policies and prospects. Special chapters cover competition, adult training and skills.

Failed

Failed PDF

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Author: Mark Weisbrot
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190234512
Size: 75.51 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 208
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Why has the Eurozone ended up with an unemployment rate more than twice that of the United States more than six years after the collapse of Lehman Brothers? Why did the vast majority of low- and middle-income countries suffer a prolonged economic slowdown in the last two decades of the 20th century? What was the role of the International Monetary Fund in these economic failures? Why was Latin America able to achieve substantial poverty reduction in the 21st century after more than two decades without any progress? Failed analyzes these questions, explaining why these important economic developments of recent years have been widely misunderstood and in some cases almost completely ignored. First, in the Eurozone, Mark Weisbrot argues that the European authorities' political agenda, which included shrinking the welfare state, reducing health care, pension, and other social spending, and reducing the bargaining power of labor played a very important role in prolonging the Eurozone's financial crisis and pushing it into years of recession and mass unemployment. This conclusion is based not only on public statements of European officials, but also on thousands of pages of documentation from consultations between the IMF and European governments after 2008. The second central theme of Failed is that there are always practical alternatives to prolonged economic failure. Drawing on the history of other financial crises, recessions, and recoveries, Weisbrot argues that regardless of initial conditions, there have been and remain economically feasible choices for governments of the Eurozone to greatly reduce unemployment-including the hardest hit, crisis-ridden country of Greece. The long-term economic failure of developing countries, its social consequences, as well as the subsequent recovery in the first decade of the 21st century, constitute the third part of the book's narrative, one that has previously gotten too little attention. We see why the International Monetary Fund has lost influence in middle income countries. Failed also examines the economic causes and consequences of Latin America's "second independence" and rebound in the twenty-first century, as well as the challenges that lie ahead.

Revenue Statistics In Asian And Pacific Economies 2019

Revenue Statistics in Asian and Pacific Economies 2019 PDF

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Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
ISBN: 9264488774
Size: 60.10 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 150
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Revenue Statistics in Asian and Pacific Economies is jointly produced by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)’s Centre for Tax Policy and Administration (CTP) and the OECD Development Centre (DEV) with the co-operation of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Pacific Island Tax Administrators Association (PITAA), and the Pacific Community (SPC) and the financial support of the European Union and the government of Japan.

Democratic Republic Of S O Tom And Pr Ncipe 2013 Article Iv Consultation And Second Review Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement Staff Report Informational Annex Debt Sustainability Analysis Press Release On The Executive Board Discussion And Statement By The Executive Director For S O Tom And Pr Ncipe

Democratic Republic of S  o Tom   and Pr  ncipe  2013 Article IV Consultation and Second Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement  Staff Report  Informational Annex  Debt Sustainability Analysis  Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion  and Statement by the Executive Director for S  o Tom   and Pr  ncipe PDF

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Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1475555938
Size: 38.86 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 133
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This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights that after significant real economic growth volatility and high inflation through 2009, growth in Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe has become more stable and inflation has reached record low levels. Real economic growth slowed to 4 percent in 2012, reflecting a scaling back of project financing and foreign direct investment as many of São Tomé and Príncipe’s key partners were hard hit by the global economic slowdown. Growth is projected to remain unchanged at 4 percent in 2013 in light of lingering uncertainties stemming from the challenging external environment.

Freedom Of Connection Freedom Of Expression The Changing Legal And Regulatory Ecology Shaping The Internet

Freedom of Connection     Freedom of Expression  The Changing Legal and Regulatory Ecology Shaping the Internet PDF

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Author: By William H. Dutton, Anna Dopatka, Michael Hills, Ginette Law and Victoria Nash
Publisher: UNESCO
ISBN: 9789236041889
Size: 51.25 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category :
Languages : ar
Pages :
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Protection Of Cultural Property

Protection of cultural property PDF

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Author: O'Keefe, Roger
Publisher: UNESCO Publishing
ISBN: 9236000649
Size: 34.80 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category :
Languages : ar
Pages : 89
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Records Of The General Conference Seventeenth Session Paris 17 October To 21 November 1972

Records of the General Conference  Seventeenth Session  Paris  17 October to 21 November  1972 PDF

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Author: Unesco. General Conference
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789231011566
Size: 13.86 MB
Format: PDF
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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Energy Subsidy Reform

Energy Subsidy Reform PDF

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Author: Mr.Benedict J. Clements
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1484346963
Size: 70.55 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 194
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Energy subsidies have wide-ranging economic consequences. Although they are aimed at protecting consumers, subsidies aggravate fiscal imbalances, crowd out priority public spending, and depress private investment, including in the energy sector. Subsidies also distort resource allocation by encouraging excessive energy consumption, artificially promoting capital-intensive industries, reducing incentives for investment in renewable energy, and accelerating the depletion of natural resources. Most subsidy benefits are captured by higher-income households, reinforcing inequality. Even future generations are affected through the damaging effects of increased energy consumption on global warming. This book provides (1) the most comprehensive estimates of energy subsidies currently available for 176 countries and (2) an analysis of “how to do” energy subsidy reform, drawing on insights from 22 country case studies undertaken by the IMF staff and analyses carried out by other institutions.

World Economic Outlook October 2016

World Economic Outlook  October 2016 PDF

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Author: International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1475551584
Size: 69.84 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 288
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According to the October 2016 "World Economic Outlook," global growth is projected to slow to 3.1 percent in 2016 before recovering to 3.4 percent in 2017. The forecast, revised down by 0.1 percentage point for 2016 and 2017 relative to April’s report, reflects a more subdued outlook for advanced economies following the June U.K. vote in favor of leaving the European Union (Brexit) and weaker-than-expected growth in the United States. These developments have put further downward pressure on global interest rates, as monetary policy is now expected to remain accommodative for longer. Although the market reaction to the Brexit shock was reassuringly orderly, the ultimate impact remains very unclear, as the fate of institutional and trade arrangements between the United Kingdom and the European Union is uncertain. Financial market sentiment toward emerging market economies has improved with expectations of lower interest rates in advanced economies, reduced concern about China’s near-term prospects following policy support to growth, and some firming of commodity prices. But prospects differ sharply across countries and regions, with emerging Asia in general and India in particular showing robust growth and sub-Saharan Africa experiencing a sharp slowdown. In advanced economies, a subdued outlook subject to sizable uncertainty and downside risks may fuel further political discontent, with anti-integration policy platforms gaining more traction. Several emerging market and developing economies still face daunting policy challenges in adjusting to weaker commodity prices. These worrisome prospects make the need for a broad-based policy response to raise growth and manage vulnerabilities more urgent than ever.

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Author: ويلفريد بوختا
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789948005407
Size: 77.14 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Iran
Languages : ar
Pages : 340
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