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Diet Microbe Interactions In The Gut

Diet Microbe Interactions in the Gut PDF

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Author: Kieran Tuohy
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124079415
Size: 50.39 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 268
View: 4722


Drawing on expert opinions from the fields of nutrition, gut microbiology, mammalian physiology, and immunology, Diet-Microbe Interactions for Human Health investigates the evidence for a unified disease mechanism working through the gut and its resident microbiota, and linking many inflammation-related chronic diet associated diseases. State of the art post-genomic studies can highlight the important role played by our resident intestinal microbiota in determining human health and disease. Many chronic human diseases associated with modern lifestyles and diets — including those localized to the intestinal tract like inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, and more pervasive systemic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease — are characterized by aberrant profiles of gut bacteria or their metabolites. Many of these diseases have an inflammatory basis, often presenting with a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, hinting at persistent and inappropriate activation of inflammatory pathways. Through the presentation and analysis of recent nutrition studies, this book discusses the possible mechanisms underpinning the disease processes associated with these pathologies, with high fat diets appearing to predispose to disease, and biologically active plant components, mainly fiber and polyphenols, appearing to reduce the risk of chronic disease development. One comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of nutrition and diet's effect on gastrointestinal health and disease Experts in nutrition, diet, microbiology and immunology take readers from the bench research (cellular and biochemical mechanisms of vitamins and nutrients) to new preventive and therapeutic approaches Clear presentations by leading researchers of the cellular mechanisms underlying diet, immune response, and gastrointestinal disease help practicing nutritionists and clinicians (gastroenterologists, endocrinologists) map out new areas for clinical research and structuring clinical recommendations

P4 33 01 Food Nutrition The Driving Factors Of Our Gut Microbes

P4 33 01   Food   Nutrition  The Driving Factors of Our Gut Microbes PDF

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Author: Matthias Scholz
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 30.94 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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Introduction: The gut microbiome has attracted much attention in the last decade due to new studies and technologies revealing how gut microbes play a key role in human health and disease risk. However, we still know little about how diets, foods and nutrients shape the gut microbiome.Materials and Methods:To expand our knowledge about the complex relationship between nutrient intake and intestinal bacteria, we performed a broad dietary study covering diverse foods and nutrient intakes of nearly 100 adults. We analyzed metataxonomic data from 16S rRNA sequencing and correlated the microbial abundances of the top 55 dominant taxonomic groups with collected intakes of 40 food groups and 44 nutritional parameters, as well as degree of adherence to healthy eating patterns. Based on Spearman correlation profiles and hierarchical clustering, we also identified food groups and nutritional parameters that modulate in a similar manner microbial community structure.Results: We will present preliminary results showing direct effects of specific dietary patterns (e.g. adherence to the Mediterranean style diet), food groups (e.g., fruits, nuts, dairy) and nutrients (e.g. iron, magnesium, zinc) on specific genera of the gut microbiota. We found significant associations between alcohol and the bacterial genus Holdemania. We will show that food groups supposed to belong to the same higher-level food category do not always show the expected effect on the gut microbes, which supports the need for a detailed food classification scheme to investigate dietary effects. Similarly, we found that correlations at dietary and higher food group levels more consistently reflect existing diet:microbe associations from the literature while correlations at the nutrient level are prone to confounding factors only apparent at higher alimentary ontology.Discussion: Our study aims at a more complete understanding of the complex relations between human diet and gut microbiome community structure. Initial results confirm that both the quantity of a nutrient and the dietary source of a nutrient can both influence associations with gut bacteria. Our results may help to define new strategies for modelling diet:microbe interactions in the gut providing a new valuable tool to assist the nutrition and gut microbiome communities.Conflict of interest:There is no conflict of interest.

Enzymes In Farm Animal Nutrition

Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition PDF

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Author: Michael Richard Bedford
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 9780851993935
Size: 48.96 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 406
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This book contains 16 chapters by individual authors reviewing feed enzymes within the context of their mode of action, interaction with intestinal physiology, economic and environmental impacts, and application of the technology to the diets of various livestock species.

Insights Into Microbe Microbe Interactions In Human Microbial Ecosystems Strategies To Be Competitive

Insights into Microbe Microbe Interactions in Human Microbial Ecosystems  Strategies to be Competitive PDF

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Author: Clara G. de los Reyes-Gavilán
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288945052X
Size: 59.23 MB
Format: PDF
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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All parts of our body having communication with the external environment such as the skin, vagina, the respiratory tract or the gastrointestinal tract are colonized by a specific microbial community. The colon is by far the most densely populated organ in the human body. The pool of microbes inhabiting our body is known as “microbiota” and their collective genomes as “microbiome”. These microbial ecosystems regulate important functions of the host, and their functionality and the balance among the diverse microbial populations is essential for the maintenance of a “healthy status”. The impressive development in recent years of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods have made possible to determine the gut microbiome composition. This, together with the application of other high throughput omic techniques and the use of gnotobiotic animals has greatly improved our knowledge of the microbiota acting as a whole. In spite of this, most members of the human microbiota are largely unknown and remain still uncultured. The final functionality of the microbiota is depending not only on nutrient availability and environmental conditions, but also on the interrelationships that the microorganisms inhabiting the same ecological niche are able to establish with their partners, or with their potential competitors. Therefore, in such a competitive environment microorganisms have had to develop strategies allowing them to cope, adapt, or cooperate with their neighbors, which may imply notable changes at metabolic, physiological and genetic level. The main aim of this Research Topic was to contribute to better understanding complex interactions among microorganisms residing in human microbial habitats.

Gastrointestinal Microbiology

Gastrointestinal Microbiology PDF

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Author: Roderick Mackie
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780412983610
Size: 37.54 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 658
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Extremely diverse and complicated bacterial and protozoan populations inhabit the rumen and intestinal tract of animals, and there is a delicate balance among the individual populations within this complex microbial community. This authoritative edited volume, the first in a two-volume set, reviews the gut environment and the fermentations taking place in animal digestive tracts. It is an essential source of reference for microbial ecologists and physiologists, medical microbiologists and gastroenterologists, biochemists, nutritionists, veterinarians and animal scientists, and wildlife ecologists.

Carbohydrate Expression In The Intestinal Mucosa

Carbohydrate Expression in the Intestinal Mucosa PDF

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Author: R. Sharma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540416692
Size: 79.83 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 94
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The studies presented in this monograph concentrate on the glycoconjugate characterisation of the mouse and human GALT and on the overlying follicle-associated epithelium (FAE), in order to identify their cell-specific carbohydrate residues.

The Influence Of Cooperative Bacteria On Animal Host Biology

The Influence of Cooperative Bacteria on Animal Host Biology PDF

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Author: Margaret J. McFall Ngai
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521834650
Size: 55.60 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 425
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Broad-ranging and cross-disciplinary overview of the evolution and mechanisms of beneficial host-pathogen interactions.

Animal Farming And Environmental Interactions In The Mediterranean Region

Animal farming and environmental interactions in the Mediterranean region PDF

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Author: Isabel Casasús
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9086867413
Size: 55.77 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 276
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Livestock production systems are the result of an interaction between domestic animals and the environment, modulated by man, that dates back to Neolithic times. As a consequence of this interaction among the wide diversity of animal resources, natural habitats and population needs, very different farming systems have developed across the Mediterranean Basin. Understanding the mechanisms and effects of these relationships is key to design the farming systems best adapted to each condition, guaranteeing an adequate balance between target animal production and environmental outcomes provided by these systems. This is indeed a multidimensional topic, influenced by animal genetics, feeding resources, flock management, and economic and social aspects inside and outside the household. Therefore, this book focuses on the basis of the animal-environment interactions and the impact of human activities on the type and magnitude of these interactions. In this context, the issue of sustainability of livestock production is evaluated considering economic, social and environmental aspects. This book contributes to upgrade the state of the art in Mediterranean conditions, providing indicators and procedures of application across a wide range of systems, and hence of interest for researchers, students and professionals concerned with livestock production and the environment.

Nutrition Immunity And Infection

Nutrition  Immunity and Infection PDF

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Author: Prakash S. Shetty
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1845937244
Size: 65.92 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 206
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Infectious diseases are an important cause of malnutrition. Recurrent infections increase the risk of malnutrition while poor nutritional status results in lowered immune status and predisposes to infectious disease thus propagating the vicious cycle of infection and malnutrition. The nutrition-infection-immunity axis is crucial for both developed and developing countries and is now a central feature of many nutrition and infectious disease courses. Bringing together nutrition and immunology, "Nutrition, Immunity and Infections" covers the topic in an accessible format for all studen.

Modelling Nutrient Digestion And Utilisation In Farm Animals

Modelling Nutrient Digestion and Utilisation in Farm Animals PDF

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Author: D. Sauvant
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 908686712X
Size: 63.96 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 430
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For more than 30 years, modelling has been an important method for integrating, in a flexible, comprehensive and widely applicable way, basic knowledge and biological concepts on digestion and metabolism in farm animals. The purpose of this book is to present the 'state of art' in this area. The chapters are written by leading teams and researchers in this field of study, mainly from Europe, North America and Australasia. Considerable progress has been made in topics dealing with: modelling methods, feeding behaviour, digestion and metabolic processes in ruminants and monogastric animals. This progress is clearly illustrated by the emergence of a new paradigm in animal nutrition, which has moved from the aim to cover the requirements of the animal to explaining and predicting the responses of the animals to diets (e.g., productivity and efficiency, impact on quality of products, environmental aspects, health and well-being). In this book several chapters illustrate that through empirical models, meta-analysis is an efficient tool to synthesize information gathered over recent decades. In addition, compared with other books on modelling farm animal nutrition, two new aspects received particular attention: expanding knowledge of the individual animal to understanding the functioning and management of herds, and the consideration of the environmental impact of animal production. This book is a valuable source of information for researchers, nutritionists, advisors, and graduate students who want to have up-to-date and concise information on mathematical modelling applied to farm animals.

The Prokaryotes

The Prokaryotes PDF

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Author: Stanley Falkow
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387254760
Size: 36.17 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 959
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The revised Third Edition of The Prokaryotes, acclaimed as a classic reference in the field, offers new and updated articles by experts from around the world on taxa of relevance to medicine, ecology and industry. Entries combine phylogenetic and systematic data with insights into genetics, physiology and application. Existing entries have been revised to incorporate rapid progress and technological innovation. The new edition improves on the lucid presentation, logical layout and abundance of illustrations that readers rely on, adding color illustration throughout. Expanded to seven volumes in its print form, the new edition adds a new, searchable online version.

Metabolism And Nutrition For The Surgical Patient Part Ii An Issue Of Surgical Clinics E Book

Metabolism and Nutrition for the Surgical Patient  Part II  An Issue of Surgical Clinics   E Book PDF

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Author: Stanley Dudrick
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 145570928X
Size: 28.51 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 272
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This Surgical Clinics issue is Part 2 of a special two part issue on nutrition and metabolism of the surgical patient, co-guest edited by Dr. Stanley Dudrick, a pioneer in total parenteral nutrition. Part 2, guest edited by Dr. Dudrick and Dr. Juan Sanchez present topics on nutrition and metabolism for the chronically ill patient. Topics will include: nutrition management of acute and chronic pancreatitis, surgical treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus, nutrition management of geriatric surgical patients, nutrients, routes of delivery and immunocompetence, immunologic functions and aspects of the alimentary tract related to feeding, overview of enteral and parenteral feeding access techniques, dietary, metabolic and surgical management of obese patients, historical highlights of the development of total parenteral nutrition, nutrition support of patients with cardiovascular disease, genomic and epigenomic aspects of nutrition and metabolism in surgical patients, nutrition support of patients with inflammatory bowel disorders of the small intestine, colon and rectum, nutrition support of patients with cancer, home parenteral nutrition for intestinal failure, and more.

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